Page is a general purpose document viewer. It can be used to display
the individual pages of a PostScript, PDF, or tex(1) or troff(1)
device independent output file. Tex or troff output is simply
converted to PostScript in order to be viewed. It can also be
used to view any number of graphics files (such as a FAX page,
Plan 9 image(6) file, an Inferno bitmap file, or other common
format). Page displays these in sequence. In the absence of named
files, page reads one from standard input.
By default, page runs in the window in which it is started and
leaves the window unchanged. The –R option causes page to grow
the window if necessary to display the page being viewed. The
–w option causes page to create a new window for itself. The newly
created window will grow as under the –R option. If being
used to display multipage documents, only one file may be specified
on the command line.
The –p option sets the resolution for PostScript and PDF files,
in pixels per inch. The default is 100 ppi. The –r option reverses
the order in which pages are displayed.
When viewing a document, page will try to guess the true bounding
box, usually rounding up from the file's bounding box to 8½x11 or
A4 size. The –b option causes it to respect the bounding box given
in the file. As a more general problem, some PostScript files
claim to conform to Adobe's Document Structuring
Conventions but do not. The –P option enables a slightly slower
and slightly more skeptical version of the PostScript processing
code. Unfortunately, there are PostScript documents that can only
be viewed with the –P option, and there are PostScript documents
that can only be viewed without it.
When viewing images with page, it listens to the image plumbing
channel (see plumber(4)) for more images to display. The –i option
causes page to not load any graphics files nor to read from standard
input but rather to listen for ones to load from the plumbing
The –v option turns on extra debugging output, and the –V option
turns on even more debugging output. The –a option causes page
to call abort(2) rather than exit cleanly on errors, to facilitate
Pressing and holding button 1 permits panning about the page.
Button 2 raises a menu of operations on the current image or the
entire set. The image transformations are non–destructive and are
valid only for the currently displayed image. They are lost as
soon as another image is displayed. The button 2 menu operations
Zoom Prompts the user to sweep a rectangle on the image which is
expanded proportionally to the rectangle.
Restores the image to the original. All modifications are lost.|
Resizes the image so that it fits in the current window.|
Rotates the image 90 degrees clockwise|
Next Displays the next page.
Toggles whether images are displayed upside–down.|
Prev Displays the previous page.
Zerox Displays the current image in a new page window. Useful for
selecting important pages from large documents.
ReverseReverses the order in which pages are displayed.
Write Writes the image to file.
Button 3 raises a menu of the pages to be selected for viewing
in any order.
Typing a q or control–D exits the program. Typing a u toggles whether
images are displayed upside–down. (This is useful in the common
case of mistransmitted upside–down faxes). Typing a r reverses
the order in which pages are displayed. Typing a w will write
the currently viewed page to a new file as a
compressed image(6) file. When possible, the filename is of the
form basename.pagenum.bit. Typing a d removes an image from the
To go to a specific page, one can type its number followed by
enter. Typing left arrow, backspace, or minus displays the previous
page. Typing right arrow, space, or enter displays the next page.
The up and down arrow pan up and down one half screen height,
changing pages when panning off the top or bottom of
Page calls gs(1) to draw each page of PostScript and PDF files.
It also calls a variety of conversion programs, such as those
described in jpg(1), to convert the various raster graphics formats
into Inferno bitmap files. Pages are converted ``on the fly,''